Measures of fight against pigheads follow from the reasons causing their emergence: to carry out cleaning to optimum terms, root crops should not be sun-burned, store seed root crops at a temperature of 0-3 °C, early landing of root crops.
In this subband as a part of predecessors of winter wheat there have to be more ranoubirayemy cultures and pure vapors the southern part and especially on the littered fields. Winter it is possible to sow on early busy couples - winter, annual and herbs on a green forage and hay, corn on a green forage, to peas on grain and on pure couples.
Consuming a lot of water, sugar beet strongly dries up the soil on depth of 150-200 cm, late releases a field. In this regard opportunity for restoration of a reserve of moisture in the soil on this field to crops of the following culture is limited.
Analyzing the provided schemes of crop rotations, it is possible to draw a conclusion that they are not deprived of shortcomings. First of all, it is a mnogopolnost, the small sizes of fields. Often the economy has some crop rotations differing in a set of cultures. All this creates difficulties in the organization of works on cultivation and cleaning of the cultivated cultures, first of all, of sugar beet. Besides, sugar beet has to pass all fields of a crop rotation, including what far do not answer plant biology. As a result of it to a crop rotation in farms often are not observed.
Synthesis of carbohydrates, and in particular, sucrose, happens only on light. And the it is better than an illumination condition, the photosynthesis proceeds more intensively. At small number of sunny days or at a lack of light the crop and sugar content decrease.
Despite considerable development of root system, it, in comparison with other parts of a plant, it is small. If on a root crop and leaves by the time of cleaning 93,3% of mass of all plant, are the share of root system - only 6,7%.
Optimum conditions for growth of beet are created on chernozem soils at the density of its addition of 1,0-1,2 g/cm3, on cespitose and podsolic and gray soils - at 1,2-1,4 g/cm On such soils root crops of the correct form are formed.
Main reasons for appearance of pigheads following: early cleaning of uterine beet, a podvyalivaniye of root crops in the fall and, in the spring, storage of uterine root crops at the increased temperature, late landing of root crops, sharp temperature increase of the spring and summer period.
Having low transpiratsionny coefficient and rather high drought resistance, beet makes great demands of moisture and consumes much more water as is one of the most high-yield crops. Besides, sugar beet has high coefficient of water consumption - a water consumption on crop unit.
Beet gives the most big crops of root crops and seeds on soils high-fertile, with a deep arable layer, good physical properties, with neutral or alkalescent reaction of soil solution and the high content of soluble nutrients. (At the same time it must be kept in mind that sugar beet possesses a high solevynoslivost).
For sugar beet in a crop rotation links are recommended: black steam - winter - sugar beet, corn or annual herbs on a green forage, a cock's head on hay - winter - sugar beet. Approximate scheme of a crop rotation the following: pure steam; the winter; sugar beet; leguminous and annual herbs; the winter; corn; summer grain (having sat down a Torah; annual and long-term herbs (cock's head); the winter; 1 sunflower, corn on grain.
When planning crop rotations on the best predecessors it is necessary to place the main cultures - winter wheat and sugar beet, having provided the good water mode of the soil, its timely processing and application of fertilizers.
Sugar beet is rather steady against a lack of moisture. As the mezofitny plant rather easily loses water when strengthening a transpiration and quickly restores a tourist's mountain condition of fabrics at access of water to them.
To oversow winter on the fields which are taken away under beet it is necessary only early summer grain crops -, oats, wheat or peas. Their influence on reserves of productive moisture under sugar beet almost same, as well as after winter, a contamination of crops of sugar beet increases by 6-7%.